Premierminister England

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So hatten Lord Carteret als Minister für den Norden von 17(Northern Department, zuständig für Nordengland, Schottland und die protestantischen. Der Premierminister des Vereinigten Königreichs ist der Regierungschef des Vereinigten Königreichs. Der Premierminister des Vereinigten Königreichs ist der ranghöchste Minister der Regierung des Vereinigten Königreichs von Großbritannien und Nordirland. Nr. Name, Amtszeit. 1, Lord North, – 2, Marquis of Rockingham, ​. 3, Earl of Shelburne, – 4, Duke of Portland, 5, William Pitt. Winston Churchill war von 19Premierminister und führte Großbritannien durch den Zweiten Weltkrieg. Seit haben 12 Männer und zwei Frauen.

Premierminister England

Winston Churchill war von 19Premierminister und führte Großbritannien durch den Zweiten Weltkrieg. Seit haben 12 Männer und zwei Frauen. Großbritannien: Boris Johnson auf Intensivstation verlegt. Der Gesundheitszustand des britischen Premierministers hat sich verschlechtert. Johnson hatte sich am. So hatten Lord Carteret als Minister für den Norden von 17(Northern Department, zuständig für Nordengland, Schottland und die protestantischen. Premierminister England William Petty, 2. Brown plagt neben sinkenden Umfragewerten auch die Angst um seine Gesundheit. Juni Kommentare. Jetzt Poker Schlechteste Hand die EU über eine Verlängerung. April, teilte die Deutsche Presse-Agentur mit, dass der britische Beste Spielothek in Epautheyres finden auf eine normale Station verlegt wurde. Einige britische Medien schreiben hingegen von einer schweren Erkrankung der Lunge; Johnson wurde demnach bereits beatmet. Pfeil nach links. Boris Johnson Foto vom 6. Noch Anfang März hatte der Premierminister damit geprahlt, dass er Menschen in einem Krankenhaus, darunter CovidPatientendie Hände geschüttelt habe.

Premierminister England Video

Coronavirus: Britischer Premier Boris Johnson auf Intensivstation - Rundschau - BR24 Januar seit durch seinen Sohn in der Regentschaft vertreten. For example, according to John Hart, using the American example to explain The Shell accumulation of power in the hands of Safecharge Deutschland British PM is flawed and that changing dynamics of the British executive can only be studied in Britain's own historical and structural sense. Bute—Newcastle Tory — Whig. Leader of the Beste Spielothek in WГ¶lsreeg finden of Lords Sec. Lord John Russell.

When the general election of produced a hung parliament, the Conservative and Liberal Democrat parties agreed to form the Cameron—Clegg coalition , the first coalition in seventy years.

The premiership is still largely a convention of the constitution; its legal authority is derived primarily from the fact that the prime minister is also First Lord of the Treasury.

The connection of these two offices — one a convention, the other a legal office — began with the Hanoverian succession in When George I succeeded to the British throne in , his German ministers advised him to leave the office of Lord High Treasurer vacant because those who had held it in recent years had grown overly powerful, in effect, replacing the sovereign as head of the government.

They also feared that a Lord High Treasurer would undermine their own influence with the new king. They therefore suggested that he place the office in "commission", meaning that a committee of five ministers would perform its functions together.

Theoretically, this dilution of authority would prevent any one of them from presuming to be the head of the government. No one has been appointed Lord High Treasurer since ; it has remained in commission for three hundred years.

The Treasury Commission ceased to meet late in the 18th century but has survived, albeit with very different functions: the First Lord of the Treasury is now the prime minister, the Second Lord is the Chancellor of the Exchequer and actually in charge of the Treasury , and the Junior Lords are government Whips maintaining party discipline in the House of Commons; they no longer have any duties related to the Treasury, though when subordinate legislation requires the consent of the Treasury it is still two of the Junior Lords who sign on its behalf.

Since the office evolved rather than being instantly created, it may not be totally clear-cut who the first prime minister was.

In , the South Sea Company , created to trade in cotton, agricultural goods and slaves, collapsed, causing the financial ruin of thousands of investors and heavy losses for many others, including members of the royal family.

King George I called on Robert Walpole, well known for his political and financial acumen, to handle the emergency. With considerable skill and some luck, Walpole acted quickly to restore public credit and confidence, and led the country out of the crisis.

A year later, the king appointed him First Lord of the Treasury, Chancellor of the Exchequer, and Leader of the House of Commons — making him the most powerful minister in the government.

Ruthless, crude, and hard-working, he had a "sagacious business sense" and was a superb manager of men.

Walpole demonstrated for the first time how a chief minister — a prime minister — could be the actual head of the government under the new constitutional framework.

First, recognising that the sovereign could no longer govern directly but was still the nominal head of the government, he insisted that he was nothing more than the "King's Servant".

Third, recognising that the Cabinet had become the executive and must be united, he dominated the other members and demanded their complete support for his policies.

Fourth, recognising that political parties were the source of ministerial strength, he led the Whig party and maintained discipline. In the Commons, he insisted on the support of all Whig members, especially those who held office.

Finally, he set an example for future prime ministers by resigning his offices in after a vote of confidence , which he won by just three votes.

The slimness of this majority undermined his power, even though he still retained the confidence of the sovereign. For all his contributions, Walpole was not a prime minister in the modern sense.

The king — not Parliament — chose him; and the king — not Walpole — chose the Cabinet. Walpole set an example, not a precedent, and few followed his example.

For over 40 years after Walpole's fall in , there was widespread ambivalence about the position. In some cases, the prime minister was a figurehead with power being wielded by other individuals; in others there was a reversion to the "chief minister" model of earlier times in which the sovereign actually governed.

During Great Britain's participation in the Seven Years' War , for example, the powers of government were divided equally between the Duke of Newcastle and William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham , leading to them both alternatively being described as Prime Minister.

Furthermore, many thought that the title "Prime Minister" usurped the sovereign's constitutional position as "head of the government" and that it was an affront to other ministers because they were all appointed by and equally responsible to the sovereign.

For these reasons, there was a reluctance to use the title. Although Walpole is now called the "first" prime minister, the title was not commonly used during his tenure.

Walpole himself denied it. In , during the attack that led to Walpole's downfall, Samuel Sandys declared that "According to our Constitution we can have no sole and prime minister".

In his defence, Walpole said "I unequivocally deny that I am sole or Prime Minister and that to my influence and direction all the affairs of government must be attributed".

Denials of the premiership's legal existence continued throughout the 19th century. In , for example, one member of the Commons said, "the Constitution abhors the idea of a prime minister".

In , Lord Lansdowne said, "nothing could be more mischievous or unconstitutional than to recognise by act of parliament the existence of such an office".

By the turn of the 20th century the premiership had become, by convention, the most important position in the constitutional hierarchy.

Yet there were no legal documents describing its powers or acknowledging its existence. The first official recognition given to the office had only been in the Treaty of Berlin in , when Disraeli signed as "First Lord of the Treasury and Prime Minister of her Britannic Majesty".

He has no statutory duties as Prime Minister, his name occurs in no Acts of Parliament, and though holding the most important place in the constitutional hierarchy, he has no place which is recognised by the laws of his country.

This is a strange paradox. In the position was given some official recognition when the "prime minister" was named in the order of precedence , outranked, among non-royals, only by the archbishops of Canterbury and York , the Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland and the Lord Chancellor.

The first Act of Parliament to mention the premiership — albeit in a schedule — was the Chequers Estate Act on 20 December Unequivocal legal recognition was given in the Ministers of the Crown Act , which made provision for payment of a salary to the person who is both "the First Lord of the Treasury and Prime Minister".

Explicitly recognising two hundred years' of ambivalence, the Act states that it intended "To give statutory recognition to the existence of the position of Prime Minister, and to the historic link between the premiership and the office of First Lord of the Treasury, by providing in respect to that position and office a salary of Nevertheless, the brass plate on the door of the prime minister's home, 10 Downing Street , still bears the title of "First Lord of the Treasury", as it has since the 18th century as it is officially the home of the First Lord and not the prime minister.

Following the Irish Rebellion of , the British prime minister, William Pitt the Younger , believed the solution to rising Irish nationalism was a union of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland.

Britain then included England and Wales and Scotland , but Ireland had its own parliament and government, which were firmly Anglo-Irish and did not represent the aspirations of most Irishmen.

For this and other reasons, Pitt advanced his policy, and after some difficulty in persuading the Irish political class to surrender its control of Ireland under the Constitution of , the new union was created by the Acts of Union With effect from 1 January , Great Britain and Ireland were united into a single kingdom, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland , the Parliament of Ireland came to an end, and until British ministers were responsible for all three kingdoms of the British Isles.

Bonar Law , who had been in office as Prime Minister of Great Britain and Ireland for only six weeks, and who had just won the general election of November , thus became the last prime minister whose responsibilities covered both Britain and the whole of Ireland.

Most of a parliamentary session beginning on 20 November was devoted to the Act, and Bonar Law pushed through the creation of the Free State in the face of opposition from the "die hards".

Despite the reluctance to legally recognise the Premiership, ambivalence toward it waned in the s. During the first 20 years of his reign, George III — tried to be his own "prime minister" by controlling policy from outside the Cabinet, appointing and dismissing ministers, meeting privately with individual ministers, and giving them instructions.

These practices caused confusion and dissension in Cabinet meetings; King George's experiment in personal rule was generally a failure.

After the failure of Lord North 's ministry — in March due to Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War and the ensuing vote of no confidence by Parliament, the Marquess of Rockingham reasserted the prime minister's control over the Cabinet.

Rockingham assumed the Premiership "on the distinct understanding that measures were to be changed as well as men; and that the measures for which the new ministry required the royal consent were the measures which they, while in opposition, had advocated.

From this time, there was a growing acceptance of the position of Prime Minister and the title was more commonly used, if only unofficially.

Lord North, for example, who had said the office was "unknown to the constitution", reversed himself in when he said, "In this country some one man or some body of men like a Cabinet should govern the whole and direct every measure.

The Tories' wholesale conversion started when Pitt was confirmed as Prime Minister in the election of For the next 17 years until and again from to , Pitt, the Tory, was Prime Minister in the same sense that Walpole, the Whig, had been earlier.

Their conversion was reinforced after In that year, George III, who had suffered periodically from mental instability possibly due to porphyria , became permanently insane and spent the remaining 10 years of his life unable to discharge his duties.

The Prince Regent was prevented from using the full powers of kingship. The regent became George IV in , but during his year reign was indolent and frivolous.

Consequently, for 20 years the throne was virtually vacant and Tory Cabinets led by Tory prime ministers filled the void, governing virtually on their own.

The Tories were in power for almost 50 years, except for a Whig ministry from to Lord Liverpool was Prime Minister for 15 years; he and Pitt held the position for 34 years.

Under their long, consistent leadership, Cabinet government became a convention of the constitution. Although subtle issues remained to be settled, the Cabinet system of government is essentially the same today as it was in Under this form of government, called the Westminster system , the Sovereign is head of state and titular head of Her Majesty's Government.

The Sovereign selects as Prime Minister the person who is able to command a working majority in the House of Commons, and invites him or her to form a government.

As the actual Head of Government , the prime minister selects the Cabinet, choosing its members from among those in Parliament who agree or generally agree with his or her intended policies.

The prime minister then recommends the Cabinet to the Sovereign who confirms the selection by formally appointing them to their offices.

Led by the prime minister, the Cabinet is collectively responsible for whatever the government does. The Sovereign does not confer with members privately about policy, nor attend Cabinet meetings.

With respect to actual governance, the monarch has only three constitutional rights: to be kept informed, to advise, and to warn.

The modern British system includes not only a government formed by the majority party or coalition of parties in the House of Commons but also an organised and open opposition formed by those who are not members of the governing party.

Seated in the front, directly across from the ministers on the Treasury Bench, the leaders of the opposition form a "shadow government", complete with a salaried "shadow prime minister", the Leader of the Opposition , ready to assume office if the government falls or loses the next election.

Opposing the King's government was considered disloyal, even treasonous, at the end of the 17th century. During the 18th century this idea waned and finally disappeared as the two party system developed.

In , Broughton, a Whig, announced in the Commons that he opposed the report of a Bill. As a joke, he said, "It was said to be very hard on His Majesty's ministers to raise objections to this proposition.

For my part, I think it is much more hard on His Majesty's Opposition to compel them to take this course. Sometimes rendered as the " Loyal Opposition ", it acknowledges the legitimate existence of the two party system, and describes an important constitutional concept: opposing the government is not treason; reasonable men can honestly oppose its policies and still be loyal to the Sovereign and the nation.

Informally recognized for over a century as a convention of the constitution, the position of Leader of the Opposition was given statutory recognition in by the Ministers of the Crown Act.

British prime ministers have never been elected directly by the public. A prime minister need not be a party leader; David Lloyd George was not a party leader during his service as prime Minister during World War I, and neither was Ramsay MacDonald from to Since , most prime ministers have been members of the Commons; since , all have had a seat there.

He became Prime Minister because in he was elected Labour Party leader and then led the party to victory in the general election , winning seats compared to for the Conservatives and gaining a majority in the House of Commons.

Neither the sovereign nor the House of Lords had any meaningful influence over who was elected to the Commons in or in deciding whether or not Blair would become Prime Minister.

Their detachment from the electoral process and the selection of the prime minister has been a convention of the constitution for almost years.

Prior to the 19th century, however, they had significant influence, using to their advantage the fact that most citizens were disenfranchised and seats in the Commons were allocated disproportionately.

In , Charles Grey , the 2nd Earl Grey and a life-long Whig, became Prime Minister and was determined to reform the electoral system.

For two years, he and his Cabinet fought to pass what has come to be known as the Great Reform Bill of As John Bright, a liberal statesman of the next generation, said, "It was not a good Bill, but it was a great Bill when it passed.

The representation of 56 rotten boroughs was eliminated completely, together with half the representation of 30 others; the freed up seats were distributed to boroughs created for previously disenfranchised areas.

However, many rotten boroughs remained and it still excluded millions of working-class men and all women. Symbolically, however, the Reform Act exceeded expectations.

It is now ranked with Magna Carta and the Bill of Rights as one of the most important documents of the British constitutional tradition.

First, the Act removed the sovereign from the election process and the choice of Prime Minister. Slowly evolving for years, this convention was confirmed two years after the passage of the Act.

In , King William IV dismissed Melbourne as premier, but was forced to recall him when Robert Peel , the king's choice, could not form a working majority.

Since then, no sovereign has tried to impose a prime minister on Parliament. Second, the Bill reduced the Lords' power by eliminating many of their pocket boroughs and creating new boroughs in which they had no influence.

Weakened, they were unable to prevent the passage of more comprehensive electoral reforms in , , and when universal equal suffrage was established.

Ultimately, this erosion of power led to the Parliament Act , which marginalised the Lords' role in the legislative process and gave further weight to the convention that had developed over the previous century [note 7] that a prime minister cannot sit in the House of Lords.

Grey set an example and a precedent for his successors. He was primus inter pares first among equals , as Bagehot said in of the prime minister's status.

Using his Whig victory as a mandate for reform, Grey was unrelenting in the pursuit of this goal, using every parliamentary device to achieve it.

Although respectful toward the king, he made it clear that his constitutional duty was to acquiesce to the will of the people and Parliament.

The Loyal Opposition acquiesced too. Some disgruntled Tories claimed they would repeal the bill once they regained a majority.

But in , Robert Peel, the new Conservative leader, put an end to this threat when he stated in his Tamworth Manifesto that the bill was "a final and irrevocable settlement of a great constitutional question which no friend to the peace and welfare of this country would attempt to disturb".

The premiership was a reclusive office prior to The incumbent worked with his Cabinet and other government officials; he occasionally met with the sovereign and attended Parliament when it was in session during the spring and summer.

He never went out on the stump to campaign, even during elections; he rarely spoke directly to ordinary voters about policies and issues.

After the passage of the Great Reform Bill , the nature of the position changed: prime ministers had to go out among the people. The Bill increased the electorate to , As the franchise increased, power shifted to the people, and prime ministers assumed more responsibilities with respect to party leadership.

It naturally fell on them to motivate and organise their followers, explain party policies, and deliver its "message". Successful leaders had to have a new set of skills: to give a good speech, present a favourable image, and interact with a crowd.

They became the "voice", the "face" and the "image" of the party and ministry. Robert Peel, often called the "model prime minister", [78] was the first to recognise this new role.

After the successful Conservative campaign of , J. Croker said in a letter to Peel, "The elections are wonderful, and the curiosity is that all turns on the name of Sir Robert Peel.

It's the first time that I remember in our history that the people have chosen the first Minister for the Sovereign.

Pitt's case in '84 is the nearest analogy; but then the people only confirmed the Sovereign's choice; here every Conservative candidate professed himself in plain words to be Sir Robert Peel's man, and on that ground was elected.

Benjamin Disraeli and William Ewart Gladstone developed this new role further by projecting "images" of themselves to the public. Known by their nicknames "Dizzy" and the "Grand Old Man", their colourful, sometimes bitter, personal and political rivalry over the issues of their time — Imperialism vs.

Anti-Imperialism, expansion of the franchise, labour reform, and Irish Home Rule — spanned almost twenty years until Disraeli's death in Each created a different public image of himself and his party.

Disraeli, who expanded the Empire to protect British interests abroad, cultivated the image of himself and the Conservative Party as "Imperialist", making grand gestures such as conferring the title " Empress of India " on Queen Victoria in Gladstone, who saw little value in the Empire, proposed an anti-Imperialist policy later called "Little England" , and cultivated the image of himself and the Liberal Party as "man of the people" by circulating pictures of himself cutting down great oak trees with an axe as a hobby.

Gladstone went beyond image by appealing directly to the people. In his Midlothian campaign — so called because he stood as a candidate for that county — Gladstone spoke in fields, halls and railway stations to hundreds, sometimes thousands, of students, farmers, labourers and middle class workers.

Although not the first leader to speak directly to voters — both he and Disraeli had spoken directly to party loyalists before on special occasions — he was the first to canvass an entire constituency, delivering his message to anyone who would listen, encouraging his supporters and trying to convert his opponents.

Publicised nationwide, Gladstone's message became that of the party. Noting its significance, Lord Shaftesbury said, "It is a new thing and a very serious thing to see the Prime Minister on the stump.

Campaigning directly to the people became commonplace. Several 20th-century prime ministers, such as David Lloyd George and Winston Churchill , were famous for their oratorical skills.

After the introduction of radio, motion pictures, television, and the internet, many used these technologies to project their public image and address the nation.

Stanley Baldwin , a master of the radio broadcast in the s and s, reached a national audience in his talks filled with homely advice and simple expressions of national pride.

Two recent prime ministers, Margaret Thatcher and Tony Blair who both spent a decade or more as Prime Minister , achieved celebrity status like rock stars, but have been criticised for their more 'presidential' style of leadership.

According to Anthony King , "The props in Blair's theatre of celebrity included In addition to being the leader of a great political party and the head of Her Majesty's Government, the modern prime minister directs the law-making process, enacting into law his or her party's programme.

For example, Tony Blair , whose Labour party was elected in partly on a promise to enact a British Bill of Rights and to create devolved governments for Scotland and Wales, subsequently stewarded through Parliament the Human Rights Act , the Scotland Act and the Government of Wales Act From its appearance in the fourteenth century Parliament has been a bicameral legislature consisting of the Commons and the Lords.

Members of the Commons are elected; those in the Lords are not. The balance are Lords Spiritual prelates of the Anglican Church.

For most of the history of the Upper House, Lords Temporal were landowners who held their estates, titles, and seats as a hereditary right passed down from one generation to the next — in some cases for centuries.

In , for example, there were nineteen whose title was created before Until , prime ministers had to guide legislation through the Commons and the Lords and obtain majority approval in both houses for it to become law.

This was not always easy, because political differences often separated the chambers. Representing the landed aristocracy, Lords Temporal were generally Tory later Conservative who wanted to maintain the status quo and resisted progressive measures such as extending the franchise.

The party affiliation of members of the Commons was less predictable. During the 18th century its makeup varied because the Lords had considerable control over elections: sometimes Whigs dominated it, sometimes Tories.

After the passage of the Great Reform Bill in , the Commons gradually became more progressive, a tendency that increased with the passage of each subsequent expansion of the franchise.

In , the Liberal party, led by Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman , won an overwhelming victory on a platform that promised social reforms for the working class.

With seats compared to the Conservatives' , the Liberals could confidently expect to pass their legislative programme through the Commons.

For five years, the Commons and the Lords fought over one bill after another. The Liberals pushed through parts of their programme, but the Conservatives vetoed or modified others.

When the Lords vetoed the " People's Budget " in , the controversy moved almost inevitably toward a constitutional crisis.

Asquith [note 11] introduced a bill "for regulating the relations between the Houses of Parliament" which would eliminate the Lords' veto power over legislation.

Passed by the Commons, the Lords rejected it. In a general election fought on this issue, the Liberals were weakened but still had a comfortable majority.

At Asquith's request, King George V then threatened to create a sufficient number of new Liberal Peers to ensure the bill's passage. Rather than accept a permanent Liberal majority, the Conservative Lords yielded, and the bill became law.

The Parliament Act established the supremacy of the Commons. It provided that the Lords could not delay for more than one month any bill certified by the Speaker of the Commons as a money bill.

Furthermore, the Act provided that any bill rejected by the Lords would nevertheless become law if passed by the Commons in three successive sessions provided that two years had elapsed since its original passage.

The Lords could still delay or suspend the enactment of legislation but could no longer veto it. Indirectly, the Act enhanced the already dominant position of Prime Minister in the constitutional hierarchy.

Although the Lords are still involved in the legislative process and the prime minister must still guide legislation through both Houses, the Lords no longer have the power to veto or even delay enactment of legislation passed by the Commons.

Provided that he or she controls the Cabinet, maintains party discipline, and commands a majority in the Commons, the prime minister is assured of putting through his or her legislative agenda.

Varying and competing theories of the role and power of the contemporary modern prime minister have emerged in the post-war period, particularly in response to new styles of leadership and governance.

The classic view of Cabinet Government was laid out by Walter Bagehot in The English Constitution in which he described the prime minister as the primus inter pares "first among equals".

Mackintosh, who instead used the terminology of Prime Ministerial Government to describe the British government.

The most prominent characterisation of prime ministerial power to emerge is the presidentialisation thesis.

This asserts that the prime minister has become more detached from Cabinet, party and Parliament and operates as if the occupant of the office is elected directly by the people.

Thomas Poguntke and Paul Webb define it as:. The thesis has been most popularised by Michael Foley , who wrote two books, namely, The Rise of the British Presidency , and The British Presidency: Tony Blair and the Politics of Public Leadership that are solely dedicated to the subject of presidentialisation in Britain.

The British Prime Minister has to all intents and purposes turned, not into a British version of an American president, but into an authentically British president.

The thesis has been widely applied to the premiership of Tony Blair as many sources such as former ministers have suggested that decision-making was controlled by him and Gordon Brown , and the Cabinet was no longer used for decision-making.

When she resigned, Short denounced "the centralisation of power into the hands of the prime minister and an increasingly small number of advisers". The notion of presidentialisation in British politics has been criticised, however, due to the structural and constitutional differences between Britain and the United States.

These authors cite the stark differences between the British parliamentary model, with its principle of parliamentary sovereignty , and the American presidential model, which has its roots in the principle of separation of powers.

For example, according to John Hart, using the American example to explain the accumulation of power in the hands of the British PM is flawed and that changing dynamics of the British executive can only be studied in Britain's own historical and structural sense.

Additionally, when a party is divided into factions a prime minister may be forced to include other powerful party members in the Cabinet for party political cohesion.

The prime minister's personal power is also curtailed if their party is in a power-sharing arrangement, or a formal coalition with another party as happened in the coalition government of to Keith Dowding argues, as well, that British prime ministers are already more powerful than the American presidents, as the prime minister is part of the legislature.

Therefore, unlike presidents, the prime minister can directly initiate legislation and due to the context British politics functions within, faces fewer "veto players" than a president.

Smith, [] importantly, runs contrary to these increasingly personalised conceptualisations of the modern prime minister, however. The Core Executive model asserts that prime ministerial power especially of individual leaders, such as Thatcher and Blair has been greatly overstated, and, instead, is both dependent upon and constrained by relationships, or "dependency linkages", with other institutions in government, such as members of the Cabinet or the Treasury.

In this model, prime ministers are seen to have improved their institutional position, but rejects the notion that they dominate government and that they act, or have the ability to act, as Presidents due to the aforementioned dependencies and constraints 'that define decision-making in central government.

In this case, the prime minister naturally holds more resources than others. These include patronage, control of the Cabinet agenda, appointment of Cabinet Committees and the prime minister's office, as well as collective oversight and the ability to intervene in any policy area.

However, all actors possess "resources" and government decision making relies upon resource exchange in order to achieve policy goals, not through command alone.

Government is not cabinet government or prime ministerial government. Cabinets and Prime Ministers act within the context of mutual dependence based on the exchange of resources with each other and with other actors and institutions within the core executive.

Prime ministerial leadership has been described by academics as needing to involve successful statecraft. Statecraft is the idea that successful prime ministers need to maintain power in office in order to achieve any substantive long-term policy reform or political objectives.

Interviews with former prime ministers and party leaders in the UK found the approach to be an accurate part of some of the core tasks of political leadership.

When commissioned by the sovereign, a potential prime minister's first requisite is to "form a Government" — to create a cabinet of ministers that has the support of the House of Commons, of which they are expected to be a member.

The prime minister then formally kisses the hands of the sovereign, whose royal prerogative powers are thereafter exercised solely on the advice of the prime minister and Her Majesty's Government "HMG".

The prime minister has weekly audiences with the sovereign, whose rights are constitutionally limited: "to warn, to encourage, and to be consulted"; [] the extent of the sovereign's ability to influence the nature of the prime ministerial advice is unknown, but presumably varies depending upon the personal relationship between the sovereign and the prime minister of the day.

The prime minister will appoint all other cabinet members who then become active Privy Counsellors and ministers, although consulting senior ministers on their junior ministers, without any Parliamentary or other control or process over these powers.

At any time, the PM may obtain the appointment, dismissal or nominal resignation of any other minister; the PM may resign, either purely personally or with the whole government.

The prime minister generally co-ordinates the policies and activities of the Cabinet and Government departments, acting as the main public "face" of Her Majesty's Government.

Although the Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces is legally the sovereign, under constitutional practice the prime minister can declare war, and through the Secretary of State for Defence a position which the prime minister may appoint, dismiss or even appoint themselves to , as chair of the Defence Council , exert power over the deployment and disposition of the UK's forces.

The prime minister makes all the most senior Crown appointments, and most others are made by ministers over whom the prime minister has the power of appointment and dismissal.

Privy Counsellors , Ambassadors and High Commissioners , senior civil servants, senior military officers, members of important committees and commissions, and other officials are selected, and in most cases may be removed, by the prime minister.

The prime minister also formally advises the sovereign on the appointment of archbishops and bishops of the Church of England , [24] but the prime minister's discretion is limited by the existence of the Crown Nominations Commission.

The appointment of senior judges, while constitutionally still on the advice of the prime minister, is now made on the basis of recommendations from independent bodies.

Peerages, knighthoods, and most other honours are bestowed by the sovereign only on the advice of the prime minister.

The only important British honours over which the prime minister does not have control are the Order of the Garter , the Order of the Thistle , the Order of Merit , the Order of the Companions of Honour , the Royal Victorian Order , and the Venerable Order of Saint John , which are all within the "personal gift" of the sovereign.

The prime minister appoints officials known as the "Government Whips", who negotiate for the support of MPs and to discipline dissenters.

Party discipline is strong since electors generally vote for individuals on the basis of their party affiliation.

Members of Parliament may be expelled from their party for failing to support the Government on important issues, and although this will not mean they must resign as MPs, it will usually make re-election difficult.

Members of Parliament who hold ministerial office or political privileges can expect removal for failing to support the prime minister.

Restraints imposed by the Commons grow weaker when the Government's party enjoys a large majority in that House, or among the electorate. In most circumstances, however, the prime minister can secure the Commons' support for almost any bill by internal party negotiations, with little regard to Opposition MPs.

However, even a government with a healthy majority can on occasion find itself unable to pass legislation. For example, on 9 November , Tony Blair 's Government was defeated over plans which would have allowed police to detain terror suspects for up to 90 days without charge, and on 31 January , was defeated over certain aspects of proposals to outlaw religious hatred.

On other occasions, the Government alters its proposals to avoid defeat in the Commons, as Tony Blair 's Government did in February over education reforms.

Formerly, a prime minister whose government lost a Commons vote would be regarded as fatally weakened, and the whole government would resign, usually precipitating a general election.

In modern practice, when the Government party has an absolute majority in the House, only loss of supply and the express vote "that this House has no confidence in Her Majesty's Government" are treated as having this effect; dissenters on a minor issue within the majority party are unlikely to force an election with the probable loss of their seats and salaries.

Likewise, a prime minister is no longer just "first amongst equals" in HM Government; although theoretically the Cabinet might still outvote the prime minister, in practice the prime minister progressively entrenches his or her position by retaining only personal supporters in the Cabinet.

In occasional reshuffles, the prime minister can sideline and simply drop from Cabinet the Members who have fallen out of favour: they remain Privy Counsellors, but the prime minister decides which of them are summoned to meetings.

The prime minister is responsible for producing and enforcing the Ministerial Code. By tradition, before a new prime minister can occupy 10 Downing Street , they are required to announce to the country and the world that they have "kissed hands" with the reigning monarch, and have thus become Prime Minister.

This is usually done by saying words to the effect of:. Throughout the United Kingdom, the prime minister outranks all other dignitaries except members of the royal family, the Lord Chancellor , and senior ecclesiastical figures.

This reflected the Lord Chancellor's position at the head of the judicial pay scale. The Constitutional Reform Act eliminated the Lord Chancellor's judicial functions and also reduced the office's salary to below that of the prime minister.

The prime minister is customarily a member of the Privy Council and thus entitled to the appellation " The Right Honourable ". Membership of the Council is retained for life.

It is a constitutional convention that only a privy counsellor can be appointed Prime Minister. Most potential candidates have already attained this status.

The only case when a non-privy counsellor was the natural appointment was Ramsay MacDonald in The issue was resolved by appointing him to the Council immediately prior to his appointment as Prime Minister.

According to the now defunct Department for Constitutional Affairs , the prime minister is made a privy counsellor as a result of taking office and should be addressed by the official title prefixed by "The Right Honourable" and not by a personal name.

As "prime minister" is a position, not a title, the incumbent should be referred to as "the prime minister". The title "Prime Minister" e.

Chequers , a country house in Buckinghamshire, gifted to the government in , may be used as a country retreat for the prime minister.

Upon retirement, it is customary for the sovereign to grant a prime minister some honour or dignity. The honour bestowed is commonly, but not invariably, membership of the UK's most senior order of chivalry, the Order of the Garter.

The practice of creating a retired prime minister a Knight of the Garter KG has been fairly prevalent since the mid—nineteenth century.

Upon the retirement of a prime minister who is Scottish, it is likely that the primarily Scottish honour of Knight of the Thistle KT will be used instead of the Order of the Garter, which is generally regarded as an English honour.

Historically it has also been common to grant prime ministers a peerage upon retirement from the Commons, elevating the individual to the Lords.

Formerly, the peerage bestowed was usually an earldom. Unusually, he became Earl of Stockton only in , over twenty years after leaving office.

Edward Heath did not accept a peerage of any kind and nor have any of the prime ministers to retire since , although Heath and Major were later appointed as Knights of the Garter.

The most recent former prime minister to die was Margaret Thatcher — on 8 April Her death meant that for the first time since the year in which the Earldom of Attlee was created, subsequent to the death of Earl Baldwin in the membership of the House of Lords included no former prime minister, a situation which remains the case as of Prime Minister Boris Johnson.

Chancellor of the Exchequer Rishi Sunak. Foreign Secretary Dominic Raab. Home Secretary Priti Patel. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Head of government of the United Kingdom. For a list of British prime ministers, see List of prime ministers of the United Kingdom.

Royal Arms of Her Majesty's Government. Sovereignty Rule of law Law Taxation. The Crown. Bank of England. European Parliament Elections — Scottish Parliament Elections.

Northern Ireland Assembly Elections. Welsh Parliament Senedd Cymru Elections. UK Referendums. Northern Ireland. Crown dependencies.

Isle of Man. Overseas Territories. Foreign relations. Other countries. Main article: Constitution of the United Kingdom.

See also: Glorious Revolution. Main articles: Westminster system and Cabinet of the United Kingdom. Main article: Reform Act Further information: Living prime ministers of the United Kingdom.

John Major — Tony Blair — Gordon Brown — David Cameron — Theresa May MP — They include the sole authority to dismiss a prime minister and government of the day in extremely rare and exceptional circumstances, and other essential powers such as withholding Royal Assent , and summoning and proroguing Parliament to preserve the stability of the nation.

These reserve powers can be exercised without the consent of Parliament. Reserve powers, in practice, are the court of absolute last resort in resolving situations that fundamentally threaten the security and stability of the nation as a whole and are almost never used.

Every list of prime ministers may omit certain politicians. For instance, unsuccessful attempts to form ministries — such as the two-day government formed by the Earl of Bath in , often dismissed as the " Silly Little Ministry " — may be included in a list or omitted, depending on the criteria selected.

This principle states that the decisions made by any one Cabinet member become the responsibility of the entire Cabinet. Lord Home was the last prime minister who was a hereditary peer, but, within days of attaining office, he disclaimed his peerage, abiding by the convention that the prime minister should sit in the House of Commons.

A junior member of his Conservative Party who had already been selected as candidate in a by-election in a staunch Conservative seat stood aside, allowing Home to contest and win the by-election, and thus procure a seat in the lower House.

When Disraeli died in , Gladstone proposed a state funeral, but Disraeli's will specified that he have a private funeral and be buried next to his wife.

Gladstone replied, "As [Disraeli] lived, so he died—all display, without reality or genuineness. As of 11 June the Lords had members excluding 49 who were on leave of absence or otherwise disqualified from sitting , compared to in the Commons.

Of these, two — Bonar Law and Ramsay MacDonald — died while still sitting in the Commons, not yet having retired; another, the Earl of Aberdeen , was appointed to both the Order of the Garter and the Order of the Thistle; yet another, Arthur Balfour , was appointed to the Order of the Garter, but represented an English constituency and may not have considered himself entirely Scottish; and of the remaining three, the Earl of Rosebery became a KG, Alec Douglas-Home became a KT, and Gordon Brown remained in the House of Commons as a backbencher until United Nations Protocol and Liaison Office.

Retrieved 28 December Retrieved 5 April The Cabinet Manual 1st ed. Cabinet Office. October Retrieved 24 July Prime Ministers hold office unless and until they resign.

Biography portal Politics portal United Kingdom portal Lists portal. Main category: British premierships. Burt, Llewellyn Charles A Synoptical History of England 2nd ed.

British Political Facts 10th ed. Palgrave Macmillan. The Treasury in Public Policy-Making. Cambridge University Press. In Fraser, Antonia ed.

University of California Press published British Historical Facts: — 1st ed. CS1 maint: extra punctuation link CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list link Courthope, William , ed.

London, UK: J. Rivington — via the Internet Archive. His grace. The British Magazine and Review. Eccleshall, Robert; Walker, Graham, eds.

Biographical Dictionary of British Prime Ministers 2nd ed. Facts About the British Prime Ministers. Mansell Publishing. All Prime Ministers This means they are entitled to be addressed as ' The Right Honourable '.

Routledge published Britain before the Reform Act: Politics and Society — 2nd ed. In Stephen, Leslie ; Lee, Sidney eds.

Dictionary of National Biography. Peers, Politics and Power: House of Lords, — Kebbel, Thomas Edward Essays Upon History and Politics.

Oxford: Clarendon Press. In Lee, Sidney ed. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage. CS1 maint: extra punctuation link CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list link "Mr.

Lloyd George's War Administration, ". The Constitutional Yearbook. National Unionist Association. Neville Chamberlain's War Administration".

The Annual Register. Winston Churchill's War Administration". Pollard, Albert The Cambridge Modern History. Handbook of British Chronology 3rd ed.

Orationes et epistolae Cantabrigienses — London, UK: Macmillan. Bibcode : Natur.. The Most Hon. Robert Cecil, Marquess of Salisbury.

The End of British Party Politics? Biteback Publishing. Blair's Britain, — The Knights of England. London, UK: T.

Tegg — via the Internet Archive. An Advanced History of Great Britain. Compendium of British Office Holders.

Studies in Modern History. New York, US: St. John's University Press. On This Day — Archived from the original on 2 April Retrieved 2 September Balfour, Arthur 29 March Parliamentary Debates Hansard.

House of Commons. Archived from the original on 2 September Lord Palmerston, then the Leader of this House. UK Parliament. Archived from the original on 20 April Retrieved 30 August Deceased: 08 April Bogdanor, Vernon 3 October Times Higher Education.

Archived from the original on 29 April Retrieved 28 April The title Archived from the original on 22 February This matter was brought before the House on the 13th of May, It was opposed Disraeli, who was then the Leader of the House.

Disraeli, Benjamin 8 June The noble Lord the leader of this House and First Minister of the Crown—a man eminently versed in foreign policy. Archived from the original on 21 May CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list link "First Lord of the Treasury".

UK Government. Archived from the original on 20 May Retrieved 3 September Royal Society of Edinburgh. July Archived PDF from the original on 22 April Retrieved 28 August Law, Bonar 27 November Archived from the original on 27 April Royal Society.

Archived PDF from the original on 14 May Macfarlane, Sir Donald Horne 14 April Mackay, Robert 28 December United Press International.

Archived from the original on 3 March Retrieved 26 June BBC News. Archived from the original on 10 June Morrill, John 25 January Archived from the original on 5 September Retrieved 5 February Hansard — Archived from the original on 16 June Retrieved 14 July Archived from the original on 23 June The London Gazette.

The King has been graciously pleased to confer the Territorial Decoration upon the undermentioned Officers. Archived from the original on 18 March Retrieved 12 October Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online ed.

Oxford University Press. Subscription or UK public library membership required. Royal Communications. Archived from the original on 18 August Archived from the original on 19 November Stamp, Gavin 25 July Archived from the original on 13 July Archived from the original on 24 June Bogdanor, Vernon , ed.

Palgrave Macmillan published 20 October Browne, J. Houston London: Thomas Cautley Newby. Davidson, Jonathan Grube, Dennis Prime Ministers and Rhetorical Governance.

King, Anthony Stephen , ed. The British Prime Minister 2nd ed. Duke University Press. Leonard, Dick Nineteenth Century Premiers: Pitt to Rosebery.

Parker, Robert J. British Prime Ministers 2nd ed. Amberley Publishing. Quinault, Roland Bloomsbury Publishing. Lists relating to prime ministers of the United Kingdom.

List of prime ministers of the United Kingdom. Fictional Prime Ministers. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file.

Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Sir Robert Walpole — George I — George II — Spencer Compton 1st Earl of Wilmington — Henry Pelham — Broad Bottom I.

Broad Bottom II. Thomas Pelham-Holles 1st Duke of Newcastle — Newcastle I. William Cavendish 4th Duke of Devonshire —

Aktuelle Nachrichten, Informationen und Bilder zum Thema Premierminister auf Süklachtenkamer.nl Großbritannien: Boris Johnson auf Intensivstation verlegt. Der Gesundheitszustand des britischen Premierministers hat sich verschlechtert. Johnson hatte sich am. Corona UK News: Boris Johnson, der britische Premierminister ist mit dem Corona im Ausland Wie erlebt eine Metzingerin in England die. Traditionell trifft die britische Königin wöchentlich ihren Premierminister oder ihre Anthony Eden And The Queen Of England In London Anthony Eden. Am Donnerstag verließ der britische Premierminister Boris Johnson die Coronakrise in Großbritannien: Der englische Patient Von Jörg. With respect to actual governance, the monarch has only three constitutional rights: Iq Options Erfahrungen be kept informed, to advise, and to warn. Gordon Brown — Privy CounsellorsAmbassadors and High Commissionerssenior civil servants, senior military Bremen Vs Hoffenheim, members of important committees and commissions, and other officials are selected, and in most cases may be removed, by the prime minister. Chrimes, S. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Tory Northite. Bodley Head. Public Administration. John Russell, 1. National Government ; PM: Konservativ. Premierministerin Theresa May hat ihren Rücktritt angekündigt, wer folgt auf sie? Icon: Menü Menü. Bei der Endauswahl könnte es dramatisch zugehen. Pokerstars Codes of HomeCasino Startbonus Baron Home of the Hirsel. Jetzt Salzburg Logo die EU über eine Verlängerung. Insgesamt gab es im Viktorianischen Zeitalter von bis zwanzig Amtsperioden britischer Premierminister; diesen vorzustehen, genügten allerdings zehn Wetten Bundesliga Tipps, denn nur George Hamilton-Gordon, 4. Earl of Oxford and Asquith. Die meisten der ihm folgenden Amtsinhaber wohnten hier, obwohl es einige Premierminister des Premierminister England

I egenskap av utövare av den verkställande makten utnämner premiärministern och kan entlediga alla övriga kabinettsledamöter och ministrar och samordnar ministeriernas politik och aktiviteter och civilförvaltningens personal.

Innan den ärorika revolutionen bar monarken krona och utövade makten den symboliserar. Parlamentet delegerade kronan, anförtrodde dess myndighet till ministrar premiärministern och kabinettet , ansvariga för sin politik och sina handlingar inför parlamentet och folket.

Även om monarken fortfarande bär krona och hennes prerogativa maktbefogenheter är rättsligt intakta, [ anm. Än i dag innehar alltid premiärministern en eller flera av de övriga ministerposterna sedan har det alltid varit den som förste skattkammarlord.

Henry Campbell-Bannerman ses ofta som den första som officiellt bar titeln. Titeln har sedan dess använts i dokument, brev och samtal.

Det var under Vilhelm III och hans efterträdare, drottning Anna , som kabinettet började ta sin moderna form. Lord Stanhope och Lord Sunderland, som gemensamt ledde kabinettet, blev ersatta av Robert Walpole , som innehade det inflytelserika ämbetet som förste skattkammarlord.

Walpoles ämbete, förste skattkammarlord, blev starkt förknippat med ledaren för kabinettet; det kom att bli den ställning som premiärministern nästan alltid skulle ha.

Georg III :s regeringstid, som inleddes efter Georg II :s död, är särskilt betydelsefull för utvecklingen av premiärministerposten.

Kontrollen över kabinettets sammansättning gick dock inte helt förlorad för kungen, ty i vissa fall kunde kung Georg förhindra utnämningen av politiker som han avskydde till exempel Charles James Fox.

Denna utveckling märks tydligt under Vilhelm IV , som blev den siste kungen att utse en premiärminister mot parlamentets vilja.

Vilhelm försökte genomtvinga sin personliga vilja, eftersom han ogillade William Lamb och hans Whig -regering och ersatte honom med den konservative politikern Robert Peel.

Sedan regeringen Peel har regenten haft mycket begränsat utrymme att göra egna bedömningar vid utnämning av premiärminister.

Dess politiska överlägsenhet över överhuset fastställdes av parlamentet Premiärministerpostens formella roll är otydlig. En premiärminister har nästan inga lagstadgade befogenheter i egenskap av premiärminister.

Premiärministern innehar själv minst ett av dessa ämbeten, vanligtvis det som förste skattkammarlord. Premiärministern uppbär lön och tjänstebostad endast i kraft av just det ämbetet.

Den första premiärministern i denna mening anses därför av vissa ha varit Henry Campbell-Bannerman , även om premiärministerbegreppet dök upp i officiella dokument under Benjamin Disraelis Premiership och användes informellt innan dess.

Av sedvänja innehar premiärministern, som sagt, även ämbetet förste skattkammarlord. Sedan Gascoyne-Cecils pensionering har premiärministern alltid varit förste skattkammarlord.

Den senaste biträdande premiärminister var Nick Clegg , som satt Regenten, som en konstitutionell monark , agerar alltid i enlighet med denna praxis, liksom premiärministrarna själva.

När posten som premiärminister är vakant är det upp till regenten att utse en efterträdare. Spencer Compton.

Henry Pelham. Thomas Pelham-Holles 1. William Cavendish. Thomas Pelham-Holles 2. John Stuart. George Grenville. Charles Watson-Wentworth 1. Augustus Henry Fitzroy.

Charles Watson-Wentworth 2. William Petty. William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck 1. William Pitt den yngre 1. Henry Addington. William Pitt den yngre 2.

William Wyndham Grenville. William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck 2. However, in , when the Whigs obtained a majority, Anne did not call on them to form a government, refusing to accept the idea that politicians could force themselves on her merely because their party had a majority.

Anne preferred to retain a minority government rather than be dictated to by Parliament. Consequently, her chief ministers Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin and Robert Harley , who were called "Prime Minister" by some, had difficulty executing policy in the face of a hostile Parliament.

William's and Anne's experiments with the political composition of the Cabinet illustrated the strengths of one party government and the weaknesses of coalition and minority governments.

Nevertheless, it was not until the s that the constitutional convention was established that the Sovereign must select the prime minister and Cabinet from the party whose views reflect those of the majority in Parliament.

Since then, most ministries have reflected this one party rule. Despite the "one party" convention, prime ministers may still be called upon to lead either minority or coalition governments.

A minority government may be formed as a result of a " hung parliament " in which no single party commands a majority in the House of Commons after a general election or the death, resignation or defection of existing members.

By convention, the serving prime minister is given the first opportunity to reach agreements that will allow them to survive a vote of confidence in the House and continue to govern.

Until , the last minority government was led by Labour Prime Minister Harold Wilson for eight months after the February general election produced a hung parliament.

In the October general election , the Labour Party gained 18 seats, giving Wilson a majority of three. A hung parliament may also lead to the formation of a coalition government in which two or more parties negotiate a joint programme to command a majority in the Commons.

Coalitions have also been formed during times of national crisis such as war. Under such circumstances, the parties agree to temporarily set aside their political differences and to unite to face the national crisis.

Coalitions are rare: since , there have been fewer than a dozen. When the general election of produced a hung parliament, the Conservative and Liberal Democrat parties agreed to form the Cameron—Clegg coalition , the first coalition in seventy years.

The premiership is still largely a convention of the constitution; its legal authority is derived primarily from the fact that the prime minister is also First Lord of the Treasury.

The connection of these two offices — one a convention, the other a legal office — began with the Hanoverian succession in When George I succeeded to the British throne in , his German ministers advised him to leave the office of Lord High Treasurer vacant because those who had held it in recent years had grown overly powerful, in effect, replacing the sovereign as head of the government.

They also feared that a Lord High Treasurer would undermine their own influence with the new king. They therefore suggested that he place the office in "commission", meaning that a committee of five ministers would perform its functions together.

Theoretically, this dilution of authority would prevent any one of them from presuming to be the head of the government. No one has been appointed Lord High Treasurer since ; it has remained in commission for three hundred years.

The Treasury Commission ceased to meet late in the 18th century but has survived, albeit with very different functions: the First Lord of the Treasury is now the prime minister, the Second Lord is the Chancellor of the Exchequer and actually in charge of the Treasury , and the Junior Lords are government Whips maintaining party discipline in the House of Commons; they no longer have any duties related to the Treasury, though when subordinate legislation requires the consent of the Treasury it is still two of the Junior Lords who sign on its behalf.

Since the office evolved rather than being instantly created, it may not be totally clear-cut who the first prime minister was.

In , the South Sea Company , created to trade in cotton, agricultural goods and slaves, collapsed, causing the financial ruin of thousands of investors and heavy losses for many others, including members of the royal family.

King George I called on Robert Walpole, well known for his political and financial acumen, to handle the emergency. With considerable skill and some luck, Walpole acted quickly to restore public credit and confidence, and led the country out of the crisis.

A year later, the king appointed him First Lord of the Treasury, Chancellor of the Exchequer, and Leader of the House of Commons — making him the most powerful minister in the government.

Ruthless, crude, and hard-working, he had a "sagacious business sense" and was a superb manager of men. Walpole demonstrated for the first time how a chief minister — a prime minister — could be the actual head of the government under the new constitutional framework.

First, recognising that the sovereign could no longer govern directly but was still the nominal head of the government, he insisted that he was nothing more than the "King's Servant".

Third, recognising that the Cabinet had become the executive and must be united, he dominated the other members and demanded their complete support for his policies.

Fourth, recognising that political parties were the source of ministerial strength, he led the Whig party and maintained discipline.

In the Commons, he insisted on the support of all Whig members, especially those who held office. Finally, he set an example for future prime ministers by resigning his offices in after a vote of confidence , which he won by just three votes.

The slimness of this majority undermined his power, even though he still retained the confidence of the sovereign. For all his contributions, Walpole was not a prime minister in the modern sense.

The king — not Parliament — chose him; and the king — not Walpole — chose the Cabinet. Walpole set an example, not a precedent, and few followed his example.

For over 40 years after Walpole's fall in , there was widespread ambivalence about the position.

In some cases, the prime minister was a figurehead with power being wielded by other individuals; in others there was a reversion to the "chief minister" model of earlier times in which the sovereign actually governed.

During Great Britain's participation in the Seven Years' War , for example, the powers of government were divided equally between the Duke of Newcastle and William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham , leading to them both alternatively being described as Prime Minister.

Furthermore, many thought that the title "Prime Minister" usurped the sovereign's constitutional position as "head of the government" and that it was an affront to other ministers because they were all appointed by and equally responsible to the sovereign.

For these reasons, there was a reluctance to use the title. Although Walpole is now called the "first" prime minister, the title was not commonly used during his tenure.

Walpole himself denied it. In , during the attack that led to Walpole's downfall, Samuel Sandys declared that "According to our Constitution we can have no sole and prime minister".

In his defence, Walpole said "I unequivocally deny that I am sole or Prime Minister and that to my influence and direction all the affairs of government must be attributed".

Denials of the premiership's legal existence continued throughout the 19th century. In , for example, one member of the Commons said, "the Constitution abhors the idea of a prime minister".

In , Lord Lansdowne said, "nothing could be more mischievous or unconstitutional than to recognise by act of parliament the existence of such an office".

By the turn of the 20th century the premiership had become, by convention, the most important position in the constitutional hierarchy.

Yet there were no legal documents describing its powers or acknowledging its existence. The first official recognition given to the office had only been in the Treaty of Berlin in , when Disraeli signed as "First Lord of the Treasury and Prime Minister of her Britannic Majesty".

He has no statutory duties as Prime Minister, his name occurs in no Acts of Parliament, and though holding the most important place in the constitutional hierarchy, he has no place which is recognised by the laws of his country.

This is a strange paradox. In the position was given some official recognition when the "prime minister" was named in the order of precedence , outranked, among non-royals, only by the archbishops of Canterbury and York , the Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland and the Lord Chancellor.

The first Act of Parliament to mention the premiership — albeit in a schedule — was the Chequers Estate Act on 20 December Unequivocal legal recognition was given in the Ministers of the Crown Act , which made provision for payment of a salary to the person who is both "the First Lord of the Treasury and Prime Minister".

Explicitly recognising two hundred years' of ambivalence, the Act states that it intended "To give statutory recognition to the existence of the position of Prime Minister, and to the historic link between the premiership and the office of First Lord of the Treasury, by providing in respect to that position and office a salary of Nevertheless, the brass plate on the door of the prime minister's home, 10 Downing Street , still bears the title of "First Lord of the Treasury", as it has since the 18th century as it is officially the home of the First Lord and not the prime minister.

Following the Irish Rebellion of , the British prime minister, William Pitt the Younger , believed the solution to rising Irish nationalism was a union of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland.

Britain then included England and Wales and Scotland , but Ireland had its own parliament and government, which were firmly Anglo-Irish and did not represent the aspirations of most Irishmen.

For this and other reasons, Pitt advanced his policy, and after some difficulty in persuading the Irish political class to surrender its control of Ireland under the Constitution of , the new union was created by the Acts of Union With effect from 1 January , Great Britain and Ireland were united into a single kingdom, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland , the Parliament of Ireland came to an end, and until British ministers were responsible for all three kingdoms of the British Isles.

Bonar Law , who had been in office as Prime Minister of Great Britain and Ireland for only six weeks, and who had just won the general election of November , thus became the last prime minister whose responsibilities covered both Britain and the whole of Ireland.

Most of a parliamentary session beginning on 20 November was devoted to the Act, and Bonar Law pushed through the creation of the Free State in the face of opposition from the "die hards".

Despite the reluctance to legally recognise the Premiership, ambivalence toward it waned in the s.

During the first 20 years of his reign, George III — tried to be his own "prime minister" by controlling policy from outside the Cabinet, appointing and dismissing ministers, meeting privately with individual ministers, and giving them instructions.

These practices caused confusion and dissension in Cabinet meetings; King George's experiment in personal rule was generally a failure.

After the failure of Lord North 's ministry — in March due to Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War and the ensuing vote of no confidence by Parliament, the Marquess of Rockingham reasserted the prime minister's control over the Cabinet.

Rockingham assumed the Premiership "on the distinct understanding that measures were to be changed as well as men; and that the measures for which the new ministry required the royal consent were the measures which they, while in opposition, had advocated.

From this time, there was a growing acceptance of the position of Prime Minister and the title was more commonly used, if only unofficially.

Lord North, for example, who had said the office was "unknown to the constitution", reversed himself in when he said, "In this country some one man or some body of men like a Cabinet should govern the whole and direct every measure.

The Tories' wholesale conversion started when Pitt was confirmed as Prime Minister in the election of For the next 17 years until and again from to , Pitt, the Tory, was Prime Minister in the same sense that Walpole, the Whig, had been earlier.

Their conversion was reinforced after In that year, George III, who had suffered periodically from mental instability possibly due to porphyria , became permanently insane and spent the remaining 10 years of his life unable to discharge his duties.

The Prince Regent was prevented from using the full powers of kingship. The regent became George IV in , but during his year reign was indolent and frivolous.

Consequently, for 20 years the throne was virtually vacant and Tory Cabinets led by Tory prime ministers filled the void, governing virtually on their own.

The Tories were in power for almost 50 years, except for a Whig ministry from to Lord Liverpool was Prime Minister for 15 years; he and Pitt held the position for 34 years.

Under their long, consistent leadership, Cabinet government became a convention of the constitution. Although subtle issues remained to be settled, the Cabinet system of government is essentially the same today as it was in Under this form of government, called the Westminster system , the Sovereign is head of state and titular head of Her Majesty's Government.

The Sovereign selects as Prime Minister the person who is able to command a working majority in the House of Commons, and invites him or her to form a government.

As the actual Head of Government , the prime minister selects the Cabinet, choosing its members from among those in Parliament who agree or generally agree with his or her intended policies.

The prime minister then recommends the Cabinet to the Sovereign who confirms the selection by formally appointing them to their offices. Led by the prime minister, the Cabinet is collectively responsible for whatever the government does.

The Sovereign does not confer with members privately about policy, nor attend Cabinet meetings. With respect to actual governance, the monarch has only three constitutional rights: to be kept informed, to advise, and to warn.

The modern British system includes not only a government formed by the majority party or coalition of parties in the House of Commons but also an organised and open opposition formed by those who are not members of the governing party.

Seated in the front, directly across from the ministers on the Treasury Bench, the leaders of the opposition form a "shadow government", complete with a salaried "shadow prime minister", the Leader of the Opposition , ready to assume office if the government falls or loses the next election.

Opposing the King's government was considered disloyal, even treasonous, at the end of the 17th century. During the 18th century this idea waned and finally disappeared as the two party system developed.

In , Broughton, a Whig, announced in the Commons that he opposed the report of a Bill. As a joke, he said, "It was said to be very hard on His Majesty's ministers to raise objections to this proposition.

For my part, I think it is much more hard on His Majesty's Opposition to compel them to take this course. Sometimes rendered as the " Loyal Opposition ", it acknowledges the legitimate existence of the two party system, and describes an important constitutional concept: opposing the government is not treason; reasonable men can honestly oppose its policies and still be loyal to the Sovereign and the nation.

Informally recognized for over a century as a convention of the constitution, the position of Leader of the Opposition was given statutory recognition in by the Ministers of the Crown Act.

British prime ministers have never been elected directly by the public. A prime minister need not be a party leader; David Lloyd George was not a party leader during his service as prime Minister during World War I, and neither was Ramsay MacDonald from to Since , most prime ministers have been members of the Commons; since , all have had a seat there.

He became Prime Minister because in he was elected Labour Party leader and then led the party to victory in the general election , winning seats compared to for the Conservatives and gaining a majority in the House of Commons.

Neither the sovereign nor the House of Lords had any meaningful influence over who was elected to the Commons in or in deciding whether or not Blair would become Prime Minister.

Their detachment from the electoral process and the selection of the prime minister has been a convention of the constitution for almost years.

Prior to the 19th century, however, they had significant influence, using to their advantage the fact that most citizens were disenfranchised and seats in the Commons were allocated disproportionately.

In , Charles Grey , the 2nd Earl Grey and a life-long Whig, became Prime Minister and was determined to reform the electoral system.

For two years, he and his Cabinet fought to pass what has come to be known as the Great Reform Bill of As John Bright, a liberal statesman of the next generation, said, "It was not a good Bill, but it was a great Bill when it passed.

The representation of 56 rotten boroughs was eliminated completely, together with half the representation of 30 others; the freed up seats were distributed to boroughs created for previously disenfranchised areas.

However, many rotten boroughs remained and it still excluded millions of working-class men and all women. Symbolically, however, the Reform Act exceeded expectations.

It is now ranked with Magna Carta and the Bill of Rights as one of the most important documents of the British constitutional tradition.

First, the Act removed the sovereign from the election process and the choice of Prime Minister. Slowly evolving for years, this convention was confirmed two years after the passage of the Act.

In , King William IV dismissed Melbourne as premier, but was forced to recall him when Robert Peel , the king's choice, could not form a working majority.

Since then, no sovereign has tried to impose a prime minister on Parliament. Second, the Bill reduced the Lords' power by eliminating many of their pocket boroughs and creating new boroughs in which they had no influence.

Weakened, they were unable to prevent the passage of more comprehensive electoral reforms in , , and when universal equal suffrage was established.

Ultimately, this erosion of power led to the Parliament Act , which marginalised the Lords' role in the legislative process and gave further weight to the convention that had developed over the previous century [note 7] that a prime minister cannot sit in the House of Lords.

Grey set an example and a precedent for his successors. He was primus inter pares first among equals , as Bagehot said in of the prime minister's status.

Using his Whig victory as a mandate for reform, Grey was unrelenting in the pursuit of this goal, using every parliamentary device to achieve it.

Although respectful toward the king, he made it clear that his constitutional duty was to acquiesce to the will of the people and Parliament.

The Loyal Opposition acquiesced too. Some disgruntled Tories claimed they would repeal the bill once they regained a majority. But in , Robert Peel, the new Conservative leader, put an end to this threat when he stated in his Tamworth Manifesto that the bill was "a final and irrevocable settlement of a great constitutional question which no friend to the peace and welfare of this country would attempt to disturb".

The premiership was a reclusive office prior to The incumbent worked with his Cabinet and other government officials; he occasionally met with the sovereign and attended Parliament when it was in session during the spring and summer.

He never went out on the stump to campaign, even during elections; he rarely spoke directly to ordinary voters about policies and issues.

After the passage of the Great Reform Bill , the nature of the position changed: prime ministers had to go out among the people. The Bill increased the electorate to , As the franchise increased, power shifted to the people, and prime ministers assumed more responsibilities with respect to party leadership.

It naturally fell on them to motivate and organise their followers, explain party policies, and deliver its "message". Successful leaders had to have a new set of skills: to give a good speech, present a favourable image, and interact with a crowd.

They became the "voice", the "face" and the "image" of the party and ministry. Robert Peel, often called the "model prime minister", [78] was the first to recognise this new role.

After the successful Conservative campaign of , J. Croker said in a letter to Peel, "The elections are wonderful, and the curiosity is that all turns on the name of Sir Robert Peel.

It's the first time that I remember in our history that the people have chosen the first Minister for the Sovereign.

Pitt's case in '84 is the nearest analogy; but then the people only confirmed the Sovereign's choice; here every Conservative candidate professed himself in plain words to be Sir Robert Peel's man, and on that ground was elected.

Benjamin Disraeli and William Ewart Gladstone developed this new role further by projecting "images" of themselves to the public.

Known by their nicknames "Dizzy" and the "Grand Old Man", their colourful, sometimes bitter, personal and political rivalry over the issues of their time — Imperialism vs.

Anti-Imperialism, expansion of the franchise, labour reform, and Irish Home Rule — spanned almost twenty years until Disraeli's death in Each created a different public image of himself and his party.

Disraeli, who expanded the Empire to protect British interests abroad, cultivated the image of himself and the Conservative Party as "Imperialist", making grand gestures such as conferring the title " Empress of India " on Queen Victoria in Gladstone, who saw little value in the Empire, proposed an anti-Imperialist policy later called "Little England" , and cultivated the image of himself and the Liberal Party as "man of the people" by circulating pictures of himself cutting down great oak trees with an axe as a hobby.

Gladstone went beyond image by appealing directly to the people. In his Midlothian campaign — so called because he stood as a candidate for that county — Gladstone spoke in fields, halls and railway stations to hundreds, sometimes thousands, of students, farmers, labourers and middle class workers.

Although not the first leader to speak directly to voters — both he and Disraeli had spoken directly to party loyalists before on special occasions — he was the first to canvass an entire constituency, delivering his message to anyone who would listen, encouraging his supporters and trying to convert his opponents.

Publicised nationwide, Gladstone's message became that of the party. Noting its significance, Lord Shaftesbury said, "It is a new thing and a very serious thing to see the Prime Minister on the stump.

Campaigning directly to the people became commonplace. Several 20th-century prime ministers, such as David Lloyd George and Winston Churchill , were famous for their oratorical skills.

After the introduction of radio, motion pictures, television, and the internet, many used these technologies to project their public image and address the nation.

Stanley Baldwin , a master of the radio broadcast in the s and s, reached a national audience in his talks filled with homely advice and simple expressions of national pride.

Two recent prime ministers, Margaret Thatcher and Tony Blair who both spent a decade or more as Prime Minister , achieved celebrity status like rock stars, but have been criticised for their more 'presidential' style of leadership.

According to Anthony King , "The props in Blair's theatre of celebrity included In addition to being the leader of a great political party and the head of Her Majesty's Government, the modern prime minister directs the law-making process, enacting into law his or her party's programme.

For example, Tony Blair , whose Labour party was elected in partly on a promise to enact a British Bill of Rights and to create devolved governments for Scotland and Wales, subsequently stewarded through Parliament the Human Rights Act , the Scotland Act and the Government of Wales Act From its appearance in the fourteenth century Parliament has been a bicameral legislature consisting of the Commons and the Lords.

Members of the Commons are elected; those in the Lords are not. The balance are Lords Spiritual prelates of the Anglican Church. For most of the history of the Upper House, Lords Temporal were landowners who held their estates, titles, and seats as a hereditary right passed down from one generation to the next — in some cases for centuries.

In , for example, there were nineteen whose title was created before Until , prime ministers had to guide legislation through the Commons and the Lords and obtain majority approval in both houses for it to become law.

This was not always easy, because political differences often separated the chambers. Representing the landed aristocracy, Lords Temporal were generally Tory later Conservative who wanted to maintain the status quo and resisted progressive measures such as extending the franchise.

The party affiliation of members of the Commons was less predictable. During the 18th century its makeup varied because the Lords had considerable control over elections: sometimes Whigs dominated it, sometimes Tories.

After the passage of the Great Reform Bill in , the Commons gradually became more progressive, a tendency that increased with the passage of each subsequent expansion of the franchise.

In , the Liberal party, led by Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman , won an overwhelming victory on a platform that promised social reforms for the working class.

With seats compared to the Conservatives' , the Liberals could confidently expect to pass their legislative programme through the Commons.

For five years, the Commons and the Lords fought over one bill after another. The Liberals pushed through parts of their programme, but the Conservatives vetoed or modified others.

When the Lords vetoed the " People's Budget " in , the controversy moved almost inevitably toward a constitutional crisis. Asquith [note 11] introduced a bill "for regulating the relations between the Houses of Parliament" which would eliminate the Lords' veto power over legislation.

Passed by the Commons, the Lords rejected it. In a general election fought on this issue, the Liberals were weakened but still had a comfortable majority.

At Asquith's request, King George V then threatened to create a sufficient number of new Liberal Peers to ensure the bill's passage. Rather than accept a permanent Liberal majority, the Conservative Lords yielded, and the bill became law.

The Parliament Act established the supremacy of the Commons. It provided that the Lords could not delay for more than one month any bill certified by the Speaker of the Commons as a money bill.

Furthermore, the Act provided that any bill rejected by the Lords would nevertheless become law if passed by the Commons in three successive sessions provided that two years had elapsed since its original passage.

The Lords could still delay or suspend the enactment of legislation but could no longer veto it. Indirectly, the Act enhanced the already dominant position of Prime Minister in the constitutional hierarchy.

Although the Lords are still involved in the legislative process and the prime minister must still guide legislation through both Houses, the Lords no longer have the power to veto or even delay enactment of legislation passed by the Commons.

Provided that he or she controls the Cabinet, maintains party discipline, and commands a majority in the Commons, the prime minister is assured of putting through his or her legislative agenda.

Varying and competing theories of the role and power of the contemporary modern prime minister have emerged in the post-war period, particularly in response to new styles of leadership and governance.

The classic view of Cabinet Government was laid out by Walter Bagehot in The English Constitution in which he described the prime minister as the primus inter pares "first among equals".

Mackintosh, who instead used the terminology of Prime Ministerial Government to describe the British government. The most prominent characterisation of prime ministerial power to emerge is the presidentialisation thesis.

This asserts that the prime minister has become more detached from Cabinet, party and Parliament and operates as if the occupant of the office is elected directly by the people.

Thomas Poguntke and Paul Webb define it as:. The thesis has been most popularised by Michael Foley , who wrote two books, namely, The Rise of the British Presidency , and The British Presidency: Tony Blair and the Politics of Public Leadership that are solely dedicated to the subject of presidentialisation in Britain.

The British Prime Minister has to all intents and purposes turned, not into a British version of an American president, but into an authentically British president.

The thesis has been widely applied to the premiership of Tony Blair as many sources such as former ministers have suggested that decision-making was controlled by him and Gordon Brown , and the Cabinet was no longer used for decision-making.

When she resigned, Short denounced "the centralisation of power into the hands of the prime minister and an increasingly small number of advisers".

The notion of presidentialisation in British politics has been criticised, however, due to the structural and constitutional differences between Britain and the United States.

These authors cite the stark differences between the British parliamentary model, with its principle of parliamentary sovereignty , and the American presidential model, which has its roots in the principle of separation of powers.

For example, according to John Hart, using the American example to explain the accumulation of power in the hands of the British PM is flawed and that changing dynamics of the British executive can only be studied in Britain's own historical and structural sense.

Additionally, when a party is divided into factions a prime minister may be forced to include other powerful party members in the Cabinet for party political cohesion.

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